Contract Law Notes for Moviemakers/Filmmakers

Contract Law Notes for Moviemakers/Filmmakers

Contract Law Notes A-Z for Filmmmakers, Moviemakers, Producers, and Distributors, here it is guys as you asked for.


What is a Contract – Understandable pact between two respective others, a Perform / Exchange.


Promisor- Makes the promise.


Proimisee – takes the promise in full integrity


Unilateral Contract — An “Offer to Act” ex if you find the dog than you can get a reward.


Bilateral Contract -is promise for a promise.


Executed Contract- a contract has been carried out in full. (Ex)Burger for a Buck.


Executory contract- unfinished contract.


Implied contract – a transaction as a whole, ex the rent a car breaks down and it needs to be fixed so hertz will be billed.


Expressed contract – some sort of written or spoken expression to desire to enter.


Quasi Contract- created by the court, they apply fairness saying that one who has unfairly benefited at the innocent expensed of another will not be right. Ex leave someone responsible for something and someone else have damaged it without the person that was responsible for it able to do anything. Therefore the

responsible person cannot be blamed.            .

Quantam mercuit – you could be responsible for the work.


5 elements of contract law

1) Offer 2) mutual assent 3) capacity 4) consideration 5) legality


A. Offer – serious intent- must be communicated as serious and joking “I accept” is not a deal or contract. Offer must be communicated fairly, clear- very pertinent, and must definitely state quantity- which the courts cannot even determine otherwise it won’t be a clear a contract. Always have a witness when an agreement is verbally communicated or signed


B.Mutual assent – it is a meetings of the mind, it shows that the two parties agree on the terms. Mutual Assent can be created by buying a cd at a store to hours and hours of negotiation. From a multimillion dollar company. Destruction of mutual assent- fraud, misrepresentation, mutual mistake, duress and undue influence


Fraud – one party makes a false statement or doesn’t say something and knows the facts and deceives the other into an agreement


Misrepresentation- a false statement is made without any intent to deceive


Undue influence- if you do anything against your will then there is no agreement.


Duress- unfair acts that consist of violence to person, family, property, house, emotional distress, threats to business without real consent to enter an agreement.


C .Capacity- the legal ability to enter into an agreement or contract.

Minors can’t be bound to contracts at all, adults can, and emancipation can allow a minor to become an adult. Mentally retarded people, legally insane people and people intoxicated or drugged at the time of the contract may be treated like a minor. Ex Intoxicated and the 100 dollar tip- he got it back.


D.Consideration- a bargainful exchange of benefits and detriments- sacrifice (the promise to exchange things for) an open promise is one line of consideration and there always has to be two.ex just come here and I will give you 5,000 dollars

Not an agreement.


Promissory estoppel – (you had a defense but now it is being taken away from you by the court) when someone changes their position greatly in reliance of a promise of a person and it is not fulfilled. Ex: this woman, after a promise of a job in California by an employer. she sold her house and quit her job and went to California, when she got there, he said there was no job and the court would say he cant say that and give her a job if she still wants it.


A waiver is signed you give away your rights, you waive them.


Detrimental Reliance – means that you are out of pocket due to a particular something.


Statutes of limitations says that you have a certain amount of time to sue, 4 yrs


for contract goods(ucc) 6 yrs for contract suing and ten for judgments that you must renew


Past consideration – the promise to give something of value in return for goods. Quantity matters just like in the first part of contract law: offer.


“All” under quantity makes it a specific contract. It is called an output contract.


Illusory contract- does not obligate the person who would like to buy it to nothing, if no money is put up for it then, he doesn’t have to owe anything. (Ex) One penny for 8 cd’s too good to be true? Well you paid something so now you owe for all of them. As long as you remain silent there is nothing that would be a problem for you if you got something for free


You don’t have to pay someone else’s lawyers fees unless they can make you sign not forcefully on your responsibility to pay for their lawyer fees. Otherwise you are just responsible for your own.


E.Legality-An illegal agreement is void, crimes, and usurious agreements­ charging more interest than implying, gambling and wager agreements, unlicensed agreements, if you require a license you must get one. Restraints of trade, embargo agreements are not legal either.


Film Idea : The Magic of Central Park

Between 1821 and 1855 New York nearly quadrupled in population. As the city got more and more densely populated, citizens of Manhattan decided they needed breathing clean air space and quietness from the noise and pollution of the city, so they often went to a nearby cemetery. William Cullen Bryant and Andrew Jackson Downing started to attract attention to the government that they needed to be a park in the city, like Paris and London. An area was partitioned between 59th street and 106th streets in Manhattan for the creation of the park.

The development of this park started when the Central Park Commission took charge of the development effort.  The Central Park Commission had a contest for the best design for the Park. Writer Fredrick Olmstead and Calvert Vaux, an architect won the contest with its Greensward Plan and won the contest.

Central Park was the first Park to be set aside for the ordinary public to enjoy. In places such as Copenhagen, Paris and London, parks were built only for the enjoyment of the monarchs to entertain their noble company. Nowhere else could the public enjoy the tranquility of a park. Free public use of this land for pleasure gave other states in the United States no excuse to not build their own for free use.

Frederick Olmstead was very serious about the art in Central Park. He proclaimed a declaration; “The park is a single work of art, namely that it shall be framed upon a single, noble motive to which the design of all it’s parts, in some more or less subtle shall be confluent and helpful” (writer, p.11) Central Park was a symbol of American art, and therefore Americans didn’t have to feel ashamed they didn’t have national treasures and monuments of Greece, England, Italy or France.

The art of the Park starts with the bodies of water inherent in the mass of land prior to the park construction. In 1857, all the water bodies in Central Park were swamps. The art lies in how the swamps were sucked dry of the swampy dirtiness and filled by canals of fresh water from the city’s water supply. The park’s artificial nature was life like with an amazing aestheticism. Large boulders of rock carefully and artistically camouflage the concrete structure used to keep the bodies of water in place.

In the Greensward Plan, other ideas were put into to place to beautify the park. It was to have a flower garden among one of the most important things. Flowers and soil imported from all over the world were put into the Olmstead flower garden. Central Park was the first center in Manhattan to have an ice skating rink and used a reservoir reserve to do so. In 1857, New Yorkers were in need of a park for sports to play the new game of baseball, slowly becoming popular as a US game. The commissioner of the Park requested three playgrounds in the Greensward Plan.

Soon after it started being available to the public, strict rules arose not to walk on the lawns of Central Park, especially the area of Sheep’s Meadows. “Visitors were instructed to receive their mental refreshment by looking at the pastoral picture not by stepping onto it.” (Pg. 112)

In the 1890’s relaxation of the strictness governing the Park’s lawns slowly changed as mass mediated events of P.T. Barnum and others, the Sheep’s Meadow became a recreation space. In 1930, the Sheep’s meadow became a stage for productions by city students. In the 1960’s it became a site for demonstrations against the Vietnam War – for peace and love.

The Great Lawn is also a famous grassland in Central Park. It was once a reservoir in the 1840’s and by 1880 the reservoir was no longer needed because of the city’s expansion of its water supply. New Yorkers now decide it could be a commercial space for a sports arena, an airport landing space or a parking garage as well as a thought to make it a space for radio towers. Greensward’s (precious art supporters were pitted and fought against social reformers who wanted a baseball fields and playgrounds. The two groups got together and made a great compromise. They decided to put a baseball field on one side and leave the other side of the lawn for precious art and preserve it the way it was. One side was for active use and one side was for quiet use.

Central Park has become a safe haven for active and quiet use. It was started as a work of art and then filled to the brim with active people to enjoy the majestic art that it was created for. It is a historical park of fun and peace, Central Park.

Film Adaptations : (Case Study) Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory

In the process of adapting literary works to the screen or play medium, the adapter must capture the essence of the novel by staying true to the plot and characters related in the original source material.

Roald Dahl wrote the novel of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate factory

for children. The characters in the novel represent a duality between good and bad, humble and cocky, and poor and the rich. The plot is about a wondrous world of people hearing about Willy Wonka’s confectionary genius and the select few characters who will take part in his world by winning a contest.

Were the two films, the first “Willy Wonka and The Chocolate Factory” (Mel Stuart 1972) and the second movie directed by (Tim Burton, 2005) a good adaptation to the above standards? Yes and no.

For the most part, several large chunks of dialogue were taken directly from the source material and adapted into both movies. For example, the scene where Violet takes the gum from Wonka and starts chewing in Mel Stuart’s version, she says “Just as long as it is a piece of gum, and I can chew it, then that’s for me” (Dahl, 95) to when she blows up as a blueberry and Wonka says  “It always goes wrong when we come to dessert” (Dahl, 97) is just an elementary reason how the essence of the novel was captured in the character of Violet.

The characters of Augustus Gloop, Veruca Salt and Violet Beauregarde were both equally demented in both films in resemblance to the novel adaptation. Augustus Gloop is portrayed the typical aloof rich fat kid, that is too busy to think about anything but eating. Veruca Salt is a terribly spoiled, demanding and manipulative child. Violet is an over competitive, obsessive tomboy that is very loud and rude. These character traits of these children match exactly what Dahl has written about them, which would make them sucessfully adapted from the original source.

Richard Krevolin, author of How to Adapt Anything into a Screenplay says on stylistic choices, “ You will have the burden to make the story better. It must be clearer, faster and funnier than the source material.” (Krevolin, 12) Veruca, In Stuart’s version sings a song “ I want it now” and the most definitive part of her song was “I want the works, I want the whole works, presents and prizes and sweets and surprises, of all shapes and sizes and now, don’t care how I want it now. ”She exemplifies Dahl’s character as a source of greed that fits the plot. Augustus Gloop, in Stuart’s version, is shown wearing a tuxedo to show he is rich and snobby as Dahl explains Augustus. (Dahl, 22)

The character of Mike Teavee in the movies by Burton and Stuart do not closely resemble the character of Dahl’s character of Mike. Mike Teavee is portrayed as as nine-year-old in the novel that was particularly obsessed with violent gangster films. He wore about 18 pistols on his body and he was interested in violence in gangster films while being desensitized to violence on TV. While Dahl wrote him as an assertive character and the two directors of the movies followed in adaptation, the movies changed his character. In the 2005 version, he also liked video games and he is angry kid. Mike is scientifically literate and quite clever despite his excessive TV time because of his access to TV and technology. This correlation does not make sense in the beginning, but serves to understand his  charcter later in the movie. What Burton is trying to insuinate is preposterous and has nothing whatsoever to do with what Dahl is try to communicate that watching TV makes you lazy and unproductive. So, Burton’s Mike Teavee’s charcter is a flawed version of Dahl’s Mike although it serves purposes at the end of the movie after we already do not like the unsuccessful adaptated Mike. This character description did not capture the essence of Mike’s character in Dahl and after Burton describes Mike, it is hard to be truthful with many stylistic techniques until the end of the movie explained later.

The most important characters were Charlie Bucket and Willy Wonka. Both were successfully adaptated to the screen, but both characters in the films were lacking in emotions that failed to truly capture the essence of both characters. Krevolin, quotes Michael Hauge, author of writing screenplays that sell, “All filmmaking, and all storytelling has one primary objective: to elicit emotion of the audience.” (Krevolin, 195) Emotions adaptated from the original source material is relevant and also missing in all characters, especially the main characters of Willy Wonka and Charlie Bucket.

Both directors have subsequentially failed in some respects in not providing much needed emotional backstory in capturing the essence of Charlie’s struggle to form the plot of the story and his character. Charlie was a poverty-stricken boy and he was poor. The directors of both movies showed his broken down cottage housing seven people and showed his family did not have enough money to buy a chocolate bar if only once a year for his birthday.

Charlie’s character has so much more of a struggle than what is portrayed in  both movies, and so the audience is depraved of more empathetic emotions like Hauge has stated in Krevolin’s book. For example, in Dahl, Charlie is depicted as a frail, weak and deprived of necessary food to grow. Dahl starts this exposition by telling the reader          “ There is something about very cold weather that gives one an appetite.” (Dahl, 37)

Dahl continues, “ As the cold weather went on, Charlie becomes ravenously and desperately hungry.” (Dahl, 38) For some reason, Stuart and Burton totally miss this aspect of his hunger to make the audience empathetic, which takes away from the adaptation rather than capitalizes on the essence of Charlie in his character. Dahl goes on ” Charlie Bucket grew thinner and thinner each day, as Grandpa Joe mentions that the kid’s gotta eat more food and he is starting to become a skeleton.” (Dahl, 40) Finally, at the height of desperation, Dahl writes “ He began to make changes in his strength, while the other boys played at recess during school, he sat quietly in the class reserving his strength.” (Dahl, 40)

If Stuart or Burton would mention this in the other characters dialogue more than once and maybe show him on a hospital bed because of this, audiences that received catharsis by reading the book would receive the same when Charlie finds the dollar and purchases the chocolate bars and wins the golden ticket.

A strength of this adaptation in Mel Stuart’s version that captures the essence of the novel by staying true to the plot and character is Willy Wonka. On the day when the children and crowds met at Willy Wonka’s gate to see him, they were presently surprised in Stuart’s movie when he first appeared and fooled the audience into thinking he was old and fragile by limping to the gate, then doing a backflip that surprised the crowd. The children and the audience were watching this and were surprised. This was a slick stylistic move on the part of Stuart and Burton that parlayed Krevolin’s quote earlier “that you will have the burden of making the story better” (Krevolin, 12). In the novel, the audience enjoyed Willy Wonka’s entrance, making it quick and sharp and then suddenly “did a funny little skipping dance in the snow and spread his arms wide and smiled at the five children” (Dahl, 58) The audience watcher of this would most likely enjoy the movie version entrance in Stuart’s version than over the novel because it adaptated the mysteriousness in Wonka’s character.

Willy Wonka is an eccentric, dark and mysterious man that had an odd sense of humor in Dahl’s novel. Stuart and  Gene Wilder’s version preserves and elaborates the essence of Willy Wonka’s character and does a great adaptation of Dahl’s Wonka. Dahl constantly describes Wonka’s twinkle in his eyes and this is constantly present in Gene Wilder’s performance. Wilder is constantly excited by every invention that Dahl’s Wonka has made, especially in the creating room. The “Everlasting Gobstopper”, the “Lickable Wallpaper”, the “3-Course Gum” and “Wonka Vision.” Are some of the inventions among many. Wilder shows an affection for that reinforces Dahl’s character thru and thru from the novel.

Almost every sentence Wonka mentions in the chocolate room is followed by an exclamation point in the novel and Wilder acts well maintaining a lower key than the novel dialogue but nonetheless successful in capturing emotions and the essence of the character for the adaptation. Before the children walk into the chocolate room, Wonka in the novel excitedly exclaims “ An important room this!” “This is the nerve center of the whole factory, the heart of the whole business!” (Dahl, 63) Wilder’s Wonka attributes a better introduction that reinforces the character in the movie for the adaptation speaking  ”Inside this room is where all dreams become reality and all realities become dreams.”

The magic is gone with Depp and his terrible performance in the chocolate room. The chocolate room is a magical room. Before we go on, this thesis is trying to prove many points. It is not reviewing scene by scene or providing a review of the movie. This chocolate room is a plot point in the story and of extreme importance to these two film’s successful adaptations from the original source by Dahl. Dahl’s Wonka says about the grass “ The grass you are standing on, my dear little ones is made of a new kind of soft minty sugar that I’ve just invented.” He encourages them to eat it, as everything is edible in that room. Krevolin says the key to a successful adaptation is “not to do a verbatim and faithful transcription which in many ways is impossible anyway, but to capture the truth of the original work and convey that onscreen.” (Krevolin, 10)

Now wait a minute, he says the adaptation should not be word for word, but still capture the magic of the scene and most audiences would agree. So why is it that Depp mentions cannibalism in this magic scene? He says “everything is edible in this room, including me, but that is not accepted in most cultures.” He killed the scene right there. The magic is gone from this scene. The audience feels stagnant and confused about the character of Wonka and the plot that does not carry any emotion that Hauge talked about.  Furthermore, it does not convey any truth about the scene with such irrelevance.  This part is not an adaptation of Dahl’s magic world.

Burton failed miserably in the plot and character of Willy Wonka in this opening scene in other areas. While Dahl’s Wonka was much happier with a twisted sense of humor at the same time, Johnny Depp played a very distracted and uninvolved Wonka. Instead, Wonka in this very important scene is supposed to set the stage for the rest of the novel and movie.  When Dahl’s Wonka sees Augustus sipping the chocolate, he warns Augustus to “come away, because he is dirtying the chocolate.” (Dahl, 72)  His dark humor tells the woman to calm down because Augustus won’t become chocolate fudge because the chocolate would taste terrible. Gene Wilder’s Wonka followed suit with similar anecdotes in this scene. However, Depp horrendously gives a very dull reaction, which doesn’t forward the action, the plot or enhance his character because he seems as if he doesn’t care about the chocolate getting ruined or his entire chocolate factory for that matter.

While Burton and Depp failed with such unnecessary dialogue, Stuart and Wilder succeeded way beyond expectations with their stylistic choice.

Wilder begins to sing as the doors open, the most beautiful song, “Pure Imagination” to encapsulate Dahl’s world in the most perfect way. The first plot point is enhanced dramatically from the original text in the movie. It is clear by reading the novel by Dahl, that Willy Wonka is supposed to be animated and in this scene alone makes Stuart’s adaptation a success.

The audience at this point in the movie and novel knows that Wonka is happy and comedic, they still do not know his creepy, eerie, mysterious side. In the next scene, everyone gets on the boat and as the oompa-loompas row the boat faster, Dahl’s Wonka recites his eerie poem, which scares the group. Yet Wilder, adds some additional beginning verse to the poem and sings in low-key the rest of the poem verbatim from the novel. Wilder also adds many unique and odd sayings that were not in the novel, but the dialogue is a replacement of dialogue so Wilder is not overly faithful to the novel, which

shows monotony and is not necessary to forward the scene. This is another aspect of producing a great adaptation to Dahl’s novel to capture the essence of the novel by staying true to the character related in the original source material by avoiding monotony.

As the group enter the invention room, and Wonka shows the inventions to the group, Wonka borrows a part of a quote from Einstein and says “Invention, my dear friends, is ninety-three percent perspiration, six percent electricity, four percent evaporation, and two percent butterscotch ripple.” This reinforces the invention room and Wonka’s character as the inventor in Einstein.  This is a close match to Dahl’s Wonka and improves   the character of Wonka.

Wilder also darkly and comically mocks Violet’s stupidity after she turns into a blueberry by comparing her heart or brain to bread and the blueberry violet to a “roll” as he takes a line from Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice “Where is fancy bred? In the heart, or in the head? Shall we roll on? “

The next scenes to come were better done by Tim Burton to forward the plot to capture the essence of the novel by staying true to the plot. The bubbly soda pop wasn’t included in Burton’s movie and Stuart involves Charlie in an adventure with Grandpa Joe with the burping cola to add some necessary tension and a climax in the end that wasn’t in the novel. It was the best adaptation for the end of the film that will be discussed later.

Burton wisely and successfully adaptated the nut room sequence successfully to further the plot. Dahl’s Wonka says “ these squirrels are specially trained to get the nuts out of walnuts” (Dahl, 110) and Burton had the squirrels pin down Veruca when she tried to take one as in the novel. The character of Veruca is better adapted from the source material in Stuart’s version, where she is whiny and kicks, screams, cries to get what she wants and is more childish than in Burton’s movie.

In Burton and Stuarts versions, the Wonka-Vision room is similar to the original source material in plot. Mike Teavee loves his TV and impatiently has to have anything to do with happen to him. He gets shrunk and gets sent over the airwaves as what he calls “ The first person to ever be sent by television.” (Dahl, 133) The characters of Mike Teavee in the both versions vary significantly from the original source in Dahl. Stuart’s version stays closer to the character of Mike Teavee from the source material to stay true to the original character. In Burton film, Mike Teavee is flawed from the original source explained earlier. However, a convincing backstory is given to him to enforce his character of being a hacker of the system as Depp’s Wonka put it.  Burton’s version explained why Mike would have an obsession like every other kid and get into mischief that would be his demise. His demise is obviously being transported by Wonka-Vision, but beyond his obsession with TV, his “hacker-like” persona to test new things no matter what, is explained through Burton that combines another character from the original source being one that cracked the system, Professor Foulbody, “who invented a machine which could tell you at once, without opening the wrapper of the candy bar, whether or not, there was a Golden Ticket behind it.” (Dahl, 23) This was a successful adaptation choice to explain Mike’s character by Burton.  Burton quotes Mike that he  “hates chocolate” and it is implied he just wants to go to the chocolate factory to test his skills. Burton adapts well the demise of Mike and elaborates on his plot. This brings out the “essence” of Mike by being true to the essential plot of Dahl’s book, which involves four very bad kids and one good kid, Charlie.

After the last bad kid gets there punishment for being mischievous and callous, the ending of the novel must be adaptated to the film in the best way to ensure that the essence of the novel by staying true to the plot and characters related in the original source material and provides a cathartic ending.

Krevolin says, “ your theme is determined by the way you end a story and climax and conclusion dictate the overriding thematic statement.” (Krevolin, 19) “What are you trying to say by ending the story this way?” (Krevolin, 19)

To summarize Krevolin, tying all characters into a dramatic ending must end the main plot. This has to be done to fully adapt the original source material in its entirety.

The theme is of movie is about family. Wonka is getting old and needs a new child to run his factory. This adds to Wonka’s family. Charlie, in the same way is very connected to his family. To remain true to the novel in its entirety and for a  successful adaptation to take place, a climax has to dictate the overriding thematic statement. The novel has no climax and Charlie just wins the chocolate factory.  Both movies did an exceptional job of adapting the ending to provide much needed catharsis. Stuart did a better job of creating a climax, because he centered the ending on Charlie, which the novel did. Stuart had Charlie and Grandpa Joe steal the fizzy lifting drinks to ensure the cathartic ending that was set in place by Stuart. Stuart did this to test Charlie one more time and Willy Wonka says in the movie “ You stole the fizzy lifting drinks” “You lose, Good day sir”. The character of Slugworth, which wasn’t actually a character in the Wonka novel and was only mentioned breifly, was brought out as a test to ensure the children’s honesty and Charlie passed by giving the everlasting gobstopper back to Wonka. Charlie then won Wonka’s trust and the catharsis starts with a beautifully adaptated ending to the novel.

The theme of Burton movie also expresses the importance of family theme that Dahl had ended the novel on.  When Charlie wins, the only catch is that Charlie must abandon his family in order to accept the arrangement. As his family is the most important thing in his life, Charlie refuses the offer and then the focus shifts to a created version of Wonka’s dad, which doesn’t follow the novel through on it’s adaptation to the original source. Now the ending that was supposed to be about Charlie is about Wonka, until Wonka with Charlie’s help resolves the conflict with his father and then Charlie gets the factory. The attempt of Burton is to capture the essence of the novel by staying true to the plot and characters related in the original source material is weaker than that of Stuarts because the ending is supposed to be about Charlie and not Wonka,. Nonetheless, Burton’s attempt does capture the main theme of Dahl’s work which is closeness to family.

In concluding this thesis paper on Willy Wonka, both adapters did successfully and unsuccessfully capture the essence of the novel by staying true to the plot and characters related in the original source material. Burton, already had the movie in front of him and could examine the mistakes of that of Stuarts 1972 movie and take it’s strengths in adaptation to the original source material. Unfortunatly, it seems Burton did not, because hardly anything is similar between the two in stylistic choices. Burton’s unwillingness or laziness to study Stuarts movie and capitalize on the strengths was a huge mistake which makes the adaptation unsuccessful for many reasons and strong in very few. For Stuart, his interpretation of Dahl’s book is grand, and many wonder why Dahl did not care for it as much. Stuart’s adaptation did capture the essence of the novel by staying true to the plot and characters related in the original source material more than not and Burton had very little success in this thesis.

Works Cited

Krevolin, Richard. How to Adapt Anything into a Screenplay. New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons, 2003

Dahl, Roald. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. New York, Puffin Books, 1998

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How to do an Film Adaption : Case Study : John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath

In the process of adapting John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath from the novel to the play, Frank Galati, the writer of the play centered only on the Joad family characters and their own circumstances while giving little voice to the structure of the intercalary chapters in the novel. Readers could say that they don’t fall in love with the characters after reading the play simply because so much structural dynamics of the novel was left out and not adapted from the original text that shaped the novel of Grapes of Wrath.

Was Galati’s adaptation of Grapes of Wrath successful as an adaptation? Yes and no. Mostly, the play summarized the characters for adaptation very well but Galati failed in using other literary devices to shape the characters lives more dramatically.

When examining the primary themes in both the novel and the play of Grapes of Wrath, the successes of adaptation comes clear when the same themes that are apparent in Steinbeck’s novel are clear. Examples of themes brought out from the novel successfully are the importance of the land, the strength of women and the importance of family.

Frank Galati took much dialogue word for word from the Steinbeck novel. The theme of importance of the land in the play is presented in a quote from the novel. In this quote, from the novel, it parallels all people, especially the Joads who make a living on this land for a long time, and who value the land as much as Pa Joad, Grampa Joad and Tom Joad. “ They were moving, questing people were migrants now. Those families, which had lived on a little piece of land, who had lived and died on forty acres, had now the whole west to rove in. And they scampered about, looking for work; and the highways were streams of people and the ditch banks were lines of people.” (Steinbeck, 385) (Galati, 70)

Thematically, the adapted play shares the same with the novel, making this a great adapted theme to explore people’s struggle with the land and all the life that Steinbeck had written into the novel.

The strength of women was a commonly examined theme Galati chose from the novel. As Pa gave in to the power of the banks, and lost his land, he also lost his pride and spirit. Ma emerges with a hard as bricks mentality that kept the family intact. In a scene where she is talking with Rose of Sharon about town life vs. country life and Sharon is thinking about moving, Ma says “ Ain’t you gonna stay with us – with the family?” (Steinbeck, 224) (Galati, 40) As Galati kept with the exact dialogue from Steinbeck’s novel, he reinforced again and again Ma’s insistence of keeping the family together, protecting the family from harm, helping the Wilson’s (in the novel only) and guiding Tom and Sharon towards adulthood while keeping the family intact.

Another Theme that is reflected in the adaptation of Steinbeck’s play and novel was the unifying idea of the importance of family and the love that is shared. Ma is again the example of this theme as she talks about family togetherness when the Joads are getting ready to move to California and Pa asks if they can feed another mouth, Ma says “ I never heerd tell of no Joads or Hazlett’s, neither, ever refusin’ food and shelter or a lift on the road to anybody that asked.” (Steinbeck, 139) (Galati, 25) This moment that Galati captures in the dialogue of this novel and adapts, shows the warmness of Ma created by Steinbeck to open arms to another to join their family and thematically sets up further scenes where Ma is selfless helping others in support of her family and invites them.

While Galati made a great summary of all the characters and themes related to the Joad family, he failed in this adaptation by not adapting many structural points created by Steinbeck to enhance the novel’s story. He did not adapt the characters of the Wilson’s, which helped the structure of the character of Grampa and further his character in the story. Galati also did not include the adventures of the turtle, which foreshadows the Joads plight and humanizes it. The ending also, fails because although Steinbeck’s ending wasn’t satisfactory, Galati also fails to bring necessary catharticism to the ending that was needed for a reader to fall in love with the characters at the end of the story. Ma says in the play “Hurry up. There’s a big rain a comin” (Galati, 86). Much action in these tender moments of the end was not entertained and the literary devices in the novel could have been used to end necessary subplots of some characters cause a reader not to truly feel for the characters at the end.

When analyzing the failures of adaptation of the failures of the Galati play to the original source of Steinbeck, the failures comes clear when we examine these flaws.

In Chapter 13 in the novel, Grampa dies in the Wilson’s tent. The Joads had met the Wilson’s in the novel when their car had broken down on the way to California as well. The Wilson’s let the Joad’s their tent for Grampa, so he can pass away peacefully. This occurrence in the novel creates a bond between the families that encompass and only strengthen the themes of family togetherness, so there is no reason why Galati didn’t include this in his adaptation. By not including the Wilson’s, Galati failed to elaborate and build a dramatic character of Grampa. In the play, Grampa just dies on a bed with no explanation on page 27 in the play. Also, a reader feels no connection to Grampa and feels no sorrow for Grampa or the Joads in this manner and cheats the audience out of this dramatic structure set in by Steinbeck.

Another failure of Galati in this adaptation was not mentioning the turtle and his journey, which appear on page 20 of the novel. “Over the grass at the roadside, a land turtle crawled” and he crossed an embankment and “as the embankment grew steeper and steeper, the more frantic were the efforts of the turtle. (Steinbeck, 20-21) On page 22, a woman appeared driving, seen the turtle and dogged by running off the highway. The efforts of the turtle were a metaphor for the life of the Joads. Tom Joad later in the book picked up the turtle and brought it with him and let it go further in the story. Galati failed to use this device to exemplify the life of Joads in a symbolic way to create a foreshadowing effect for the reader of the play. If the characters were compared to other personified living creatures, this would only improve the dramatic effects of the play adaptation and if Galati would of used more of Steinbeck’s literary techniques, readers would feel more strongly about the individual Joad family members and them as a whole.

Lastly, at the ending of the play, when Rose of Sharon was giving breast milk to the old man might be a good adaptation to the original source material, it doesn’t not strengthen the end of the story. In the last defining moments of the play, there wasn’t much catharthicism apparent, but neither was the novel. If Steinbeck’s ending was her breast-feeding an old man, Galati could have done better. He could of closed the ending totally different by ending the play much more upbeat than the novel by answering the thematic questions of the importance of the land, the strength of women and the importance of family that were adapted so well from the Steinbeck novel.

Galati’s ability to capture word for word dialogue of the characters captures the essence of the characters that Steinbeck had created. In this way the play was adapted well from the original source material. The structure of some parts of the novel could have been adapted to make the play a complete success. Instead we are left with an ok adaptation and a less than powerful ending.

Film Business : Film Distributors Incorporation Worksheet





Name:            Film Distributor

Street Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

Telephone:            ______________  Ext.  ______


Legal Name:            Film Distributor

Trade Name:            Film Distributor DBA as (companyname)


The address where the corporation’s principal place of business will be located is:

Street Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

County:            _________________________

Telephone:            ______________

Mailing Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

BUSINESS ACTIVITIES:  This corporation will begin on __________________, with an initial number of employees of approximately 1, and anticipated first year gross revenues of approximately $0.00.

The primary activities of the corporation can be described as follows:  labor..(describe here what you want to do.)


The business will conduct its operations in the following geographical area:  _____________________________________________.


The corporation will authorize the following number of shares:  200

The shares will be:  no par value( no value shares)


The fiscal year of the corporation will end each year on December 31.


The following persons will be the initial directors of the corporation: Only Film Distributor: he will be the (president, vice president, secretary,board of directors and shareholder)

Each director will serve for a term of unlimited year(s).


The following persons will be elected to fill the respective offices:

President:            Film Distributor

Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

Telephone:            ______________  Ext.______

Vice President:            Film Distributor

Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

Telephone:            ______________  Ext.______

Treasurer:            Film Distributor

Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

Telephone:            ______________  Ext.______

Secretary:            Film Distributor

Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

Telephone:            ______________  Ext.______

The corporation, (not you) will defend the directors and officers against lawsuits.

Instruments which relate to an interest in real estate must be signed by the following:

President or Vice-President and Secretary or Treasurer

The officers are authorized to do the following:

Open a corporate bank account


The corporation will not have a corporate seal.


The corporation will not, unless requested, issue stock certificates.


The name and address of the registered agent of the corporation is:

Name:            lawyer

Company Name:            ___________________________________

Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

Telephone:            ______________  Ext.______


The following financial and professional advisors will be providing services to the business:

Accountant:            ___________________________________

Firm Name:            ___________________________________

Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

Telephone:             ______________ Ext.______

Lawyer:            ___________________________________

Firm Name:            ___________________________________

Address:            ___________________________________

City, State, Zip:            _________________________, ___ __________

Telephone:            ______________ Ext.______

Final Checklist for Incorporation Worksheet

For: Film Distributor

November 22, 2004

Make It Legal

The Incorporation Worksheet is not a legal document and does not require any signatures, witnesses, or notarization.


_____            A copy should be given to your lawyer or advisor to be used to prepare the necessary documents to establish the corporation.

_____            Retain a copy for Film Distributor’s records

Reasons to Update

*   Change or correct information in the worksheet before presenting it to a lawyer or other advisor.

Adaption Film Idea from a Play : IN THE BOOM BOOM ROOM


A riot this play was, in any measure of dramatic integrity. David Rabe’s In The Boom Boom Room was a base hit and a smash for all audiences to love. The play, centering on a painstaking and innocent girl named Chrissy (Sarah King) and her livelihood sure hit the spot.

This play had many flaws however and we shall delve into the problems and solutions that would make this play a lot better. The lighting for instance was just a little too powerful. The play was luminated way too much when it didn’t need to be, and vibrant hues of different colors were not needed to express the drama saw in this play. At a time of the 1970’s we would expect that color would shine, but what events the play delivered in action did not need any extra help from the lighting engineer. It was abnormally hot in the theatre, and not it’s normal temperature at other plays to prove that there was an excess of lamps shining on the stage.

The scenic design of the random looking metal frames on stage didn’t provide any great visibility to the stage being so dull and lifeless. The scenic design didn’t help establish the locale and period of the 1970’s.  The title of the play suggested ravishness and that feeling wasn’t felt in stage presence at all. The play was about overall emptiness of these specific characters and the director didn’t convey that overall attitude on stage as well. Black holes or such should have been placed on stage to symbolize the ugliness and emptiness of characters on stage.

The costumes were on par but not excellent. The costumes were supposed to set a historical period of the play, which wasn’t readily apparent without someone on stage verbally saying so. This could be a go-go club at any point in time in the 1900’s. The men’s costumes did not show a time of the 1970’s at all either, as we would expect somewhat of a hippie style deadened down from the 1960’s. Everyone seemed to be dressed the same and no one apparently stood out, as it is the costume designer’s objective to show different relationships toward characters and as well separate major characters from the minor characters in the Boom Boom Room.

The director excelled in many aspects of the show, like connecting the extreme unconnectedness and randomness that is readily apparent in every character that was on stage. Each character had a vision of them as a person and shoved all these aspects of themselves directly at Chrissy who was more than accepting of most of them, while rejecting others. What the director should have done to make this more memorable was to give these supporting characters a couple more lines each, as it is their whole purpose to “support” the major character, while also having subplots of their own. It seemed all the supporting characters of Harold, Vikki, Melissa, Al and Guy were all flat and not one was stronger than the other.

Chrissy, a gutsy actress on her own strict merit was the play in its entirety. Her topless scene at the end tied immediately all events in the play to make it a great structured story with cathartic appeal. She could of interacted with her supporting characters a bit more rather than go on wild rants speaking to the audience.

All in all, this play had strong appeal to the theme of stolen innocence and emptiness.  It was a great event to watch and enjoy the extremeness of racism and violence surrounded around an innocent lady named Chrissy (Sarah King). Alas the play should have been written by a woman, because quoting from the line “ how can faggot’s know about what a woman wants?” Well, David Rabe, (playwright) how can you know what a woman wants if you’re not one?

Grant Writing/Film Funding Notes to Apply for Film Funds from the Government


-Why does the Government give us money? They owe it to you, political agendas.

– there are print publications about grant writing from the government.There is ways for marketing appeal to these grantors use persuasive words just like copyediting to get attention.

-There is a certain way the forms have to be submitted to the government-download the government application kit.

-The government will fund you less and the private or corporate more.

CGA format for government grants, WWW.NNG.ORG

1) Cover letter- intro, purpose of request, amount requested, closing

2) Cover sheet- key contact information, a glance of finances, mission statement, and grant request summary

3) Narrative-Five Pages maximum- history, accomplishments,current program’s benefit, description of request and change, goals, objectives.

– A Subsidy is a small business grant.

 A 502 plan is a grant for a house and a 504 plan is a home improvement grant for the elderly 62 and older.

-With this American Grant conferences over the phone they will Unlimited help you- try and get this number, Brainstorm with you, Unlimited research and review and revision and there reference library and proprietary website.1-888-809-5074,Rochester,NY 1-800-440-8775 Boca Raton,FL

-He said he would put this mother in the home to qualify for the 504 plan.

– Fannie Mae, Donald Trump, Have used Government Grants.

-“You rent because you want to”

– State grants are less money than federal but easier to get.

-Various Agencies that give grants(state) call govenors office.

Home Maintenance Incentive Rebate Program


Rural Development Grant-(state or federal?) Purpose-to construct or rehab business properties, to buy equipment, money for marketing and advertising


Microloan Program- Quick 35,000 amount of money.


Technical Assistance Grant for program operations and employee hire


-Historic Preservation Grant – invest in Historic Buildings and have the government pay! Where Do I Find the list of buildings in my state?


Low Doc Grant- To provide an easy quick loan for people starting their own business up to 150,000.00 (only a one page application!) – private sector money (corporations and corporate responsibility)– Catalog of federal domestic Assistance- where all government programs are, it is also at the library. are all websites to search corporate programs

Public Foundations are –independent tv,

-They can’t ask for credit information because it is not your money

-Call or write each funding source and ask for “Guidelines”.

The way to request :

Follow the funder grant application guidelines, begin introducing the organization/person needing funding, and Describe how grant funds will be used.

– the grant application and the grant request are the same generally.

– It may be easier to request a corporate grant for a person, people.

– a grant writer finds specific project needing monies, then identifies government agencies, foundations or corporations to approach and then asking the grantor for the money by request

– many organizations will only fund only one fund at a time.Grants are more or less rewarded not by emotional need but how important it seems”

Grant language

Annual campaigns – money spent to support annual operating expenses, infrastructure improvements and one time only expenses.

Capital Support – money for equipment 2-3 yrs for funding.

Challenge Monies – grant writers salary to doing work

Consulting Services – secure the use of these consulting companies to strengthen organizational programming (Long Range strategic plan)

Employee matching gifts – employer matches employee’s contributions to nonprofit.

Endowments– long term investments from a customer

Research – money research for medical or educational.

Seed Moneystarting money but needing additional money to continue.


State Agencies that regrant money are agriculture dept-, commerce dept-grants for job creation, economic growth,

education dept,health dept, housing development dept, transportation dept.department of labor- for welfare.

There is about 34,000 foundations in the U.S