Screenplay Literary Element Notes That Every Writer Must Have

 

“CHARACTERS NEED TO BE COMPLEX, CONSISTENT, AND NEED TO CHANGE”

When people need to be consistent – they are to a end. People are more consistent than not  e.g. Darren- a character gets more impatient every time someone tries to get over on him or doesn’t give him respect and he does it every time.  e.g.  Hailey- a character gets mad at me when she does something she doesn’t like and she does it every time.  So traits have to be consistent, so they sound real.

People are like a box, we see e.g. Darren  or e.g. Hailey at work as just “one side of a cardboard” as to say we don’t see the other side. He (Darren) or she (Hailey) would only be a cardboard character,  when they don’t have same personality trait. Darren or Hailey tell us more about themselves and we see more of the other side. Darren or Hailey change and  tell us about their history and we learn more and see more than just one side of the cardboard.

Exposition – is the background information needed to see the charcters in context. explanation of a specific topic, basic facts of setting and character are made known  detailed

used to explain something difficult that is made clear after explanation (The concept of exposition is parodied in the Austin Powers movies with the character of Basil Exposition, who provides all the essential plot information.)

Transition  – is the the image,symbol and dialogue that joins paragraphs together. a transition is a change from one scene to another.

Traits in character influences roles(the jobs darren or hailey pick as according to their character traits and get higher in position that way.) and Characters in roles greatly influence and strengthen their traits.( by doing same job, they harness their ability)

You should know what Darren has in his frigerator and what Darren would get his girlfriend  for Christmas. Does Hailey have a birthmark? Does Hailey have a scar along her eye? does Darren have a hole where his pierced ear was? These questions must be asked.

Too many characters can dilute the theme.

Read CHEKHOV  FOR GUIDANCE ON CHARCTERS.

What is going on inside the characters head at any time? after dialogue, before dialogue? What feeling is Darren having right now? What feelings is Hailey having right no? Is it fear, anger, greiving, repressment, judgement, wonder?

SETTING

 In a action description paragraph should include enough detail to let readers and watchers picture the scene but only use details that push the story along and add to the story.dont use extra words.

USE ALL OF THE SENSES IN A DESCRIPTION OF THE SETTING IN A ACTION DESCRIPTION PARAGRAPH – (FEEL THE SETTING, TOUCH THE SETTING, SEE THE SETTING, SMELL THE SETTING)

POINT OF VIEW

It is the narration a story is told in. Choose Third Person Omniscient – THE NARRATOR KNOWS EVERYTHING, ALLOWS YOU TO EXPLORE ALL CHARCTERS THOUGHTS AND MOTIVATIONS.

DIALOGUE

Hemmingway is good for dialogue, get two characters together and talk about something but never reveal the real subject and you have dialogue. the readers are guessing what the hell are they exactly talking about?

character change is important because all human beings face change and the feeling it takes on over you through the character.

Develop character – don’t just merely have your character announce important plot details – sounds cardboard.

FIRST TEN PAGES

THE HOOK Gets reader interested, use metaphors. Example “ the neighbor practiced  scream therapy in the shower everyday. watchers and readers are left with what is “scream therapy”

SET MOOD AND TONE- TELLS THE AUDIENCE WHETHER THE MOVIE IS GOING TO END HAPPY OR SAD OR IF THE MOVIE CAN GO ANY WAY. THE GENRE ( GENERIC-APPLIED TO A WHOLE THING. IS THERE A GENERIC MESSAGE HERE? ) IS ESTABLISHED

DRAMA AND TENSION(OPPOSING EXTERNAL FORCES AND INTERNAL FORCES) IS CREATED WITH CONFLICT -(TROUBLE IS INTERESTING, PERSON AGAINST OTHER PERSON), SETTING,(CONFLICT IS INCLUDED IN SETTING) AN INCITING INCIDENT MUST BE INTRODUCED RIGHT WAY. EXAMPLE ( KNOCK, KNOCK NEO : MATRIX)

START WITH COMPLEXITY- INDIVIDUAL PROBLEMS.

WHAT IS THE CHARACTER THINKING ABOUT NOW? FEAR, REPRESSION,

WHAT HAPPENS TO HER DRAMATICALLY ON THE WAY TO THE GYM?

WHAT IS SHE THINKING ABOUT? (NARRATION)

WHAT DOES SHE DO, OR WHAT HAPPENS TO HER? (ACTION DESCRIPTION PARAGRAPH, DIALOGUE)

ALWAYS THINK ABOUT GOING FROM SHOT TO SHOT WHEN A NEW SCENE OCCURS, NEW ACTION PARAGRAPH

WHAT IS SHE THINKING ABOUT IN THE GYM? (NARRATION)

WHAT DOES SHE DO, OR WHAT HAPPENS TO HER? (ACTION DESCRIPTION PARAGRAPH, DIALOGUE)

SHE HAS TO BE IN THE SITUATION THAT SHE HAS TO GO TO THE GYM, BUT SOMEONE IS TRYING TO STOP HER.

WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN TO THESE PEOPLE IN THE FIRST FIVE TO TEN MINUTES?

A DRAMATIC FILM BETTER HAVE A SERIOUS OPENING.

ABOUT THE CONFIDENCE MAN CHARACTER

VICTIMS OF SCAMS USUALLY DON’T GO TO POLICE BECAUSE OF A PROBABLE SKIRTING THE LAW IN DEAL.

CONFIDENCE MEN ARE ABLE TO GAIN CONFIDENCE OF OTHERS, THEY ARE INTUITIVE, PATIENT, GOOD TALKER, INNOCENT THIEF,

THE NARCISSISTIC STYLE IS GOOD FOR A CON MAN BECAUSE HE IS CAUGHT UP IN HIS GRANDIOSITY TO CON, EVIL DEEDS ARE SEEN IN THE GREATER PICTURE OF GOOD.

Ask questions as a visual and entertaining way to express main character

STRUCTURE

After characterization, the writer must find a key scene as a starting point and condense all extra scenes and characters in the three act structure of a screenplay :

Write all you can and then condense lengthy novel or play scene into shorter scenes, combine if you have to minor characters into main character, add scenes to fill in plot gaps and rework beginnings and endings to achieve unity.

Hollywood films haven’t changed since 1917 with a linear cause-effect narrative built around a central protagonist and demonstrating a consistency of character, and the need for a successful resolution.

structure makes thing be read faster

STRUCTURE FOR THE FIRST ACT

Introduce hero Portray positive qualities Show hero’s flaw  Show  hero’s flaw in several circumstances  show how hero’s flaw hinders her and people around her  show how deeply ingrained her flaw is through narration or such express hero’s motivation and point of view INTRODUCE MAJOR CHALLENGE

STRUCTURE FOR THE SECOND ACT

Hero’s emotional reaction – who she talks to as well to cope.

CHARACTER CHANGES

Catharsis – Audience’s expectations have been built up logically and emotionally and then they are released. The audience leaves happy.- sudden emotional breakdown or climax that constitutes overwhelming feelings of great pity, sorrow, laughter, or any extreme change in emotion that results in the renewal, restoration and revitalization for living.

character change is important because all human beings face change and the feeling it takes on over you through the character.

sometimes change stays with you all the way to the end when small events explode into the discovery of  a change.

sometimes some movies have many up and down changes, and most movies have an event built up to the climatic moment of change.

a decision to change one line of dialogue may hinder whole scrrenplay and turn it around.

to surprise  the audience, provide characters and lay of the land with enough complexity  to prevent readers from predicting events too far in advance.

For high stakes – convince the readers that the outcome matters because someone that they care about could lose something precious.

THINKING UP SCENES

A way to think up scenes is to show effects of life changing events and see what struggle and drama it creates, include the role of the opponent.

a way to think up a scene : place Darren in a situation that they must get to the airport! however the cabs are striking and the subway isn’t working! How is Darren or Hailey going to get to the airport? What other obstacles are getting in the way

Idea for scene – woman points a gun at Hailey back and says give me your money in the bag or I will kill you.

another way to think up a scene is to find stories, irrational and strange and analyze the underlying meaning,

SCREENPLAY FORMAT

CUT TO : starts a new action description paragraph and the action that comes with it. This introduces a different time or place, as well as the scene heading or slug line.

You can describe INT AIRPLANE DAY and after action description paragraph put EXT AIRPLANE DAY and then action description paragraph.

A scene heading : INT GRAVEYARD EVENING – (SLUG LINE) ALWAYS CAPPED, you can use SUNSET, SUNRISE, DAY OR NIGHT as time of day.

THE CHARACTERS (HAILEY) ARE ALWAYS CAPPED the FIRST time you introduce a character (DARREN)CAP HIS NAME

.

Put action description paragraph right before HAILEY OR DARREN talks in conversation. if characters are having ongoing conversation put (CONTINUING) under the character name(DARREN)

INTERCUT TO  when two simultaneous actions in two scenes are happening at same time.

A good use of introducing HAILEY, DARREN or any other character is by making the character turn on his answering machine that sounds his recording and his name

A long dialogue passage would be (split page option)

No bold or italic, just courier new- the standard.

First drafts will be sent out first always marked as first drafts.

(CONT’D) ON THE FOLLOWING PAGE SHOWS IT HAS ROOTS IN THE LAST PAGE –but some writers plan their page ends to avoid this.

Parenthetical were always used to express emotion, writers lately have been using them for brief bits of action  (Going up a stairway) or (Following him)  – they should also wrap to the following line.

To show Different Languages just do this:

JOE APRIL

SPEAK ANY FOREIGN LANGUAGES? (In French)

Why do you ask?

When someone is wearing something or using something, or eating or drinking something make it a BRAND NAME.

When words seem godlike they should be spoken in (V.O) voiceover; also used for what they character is thinking inside: their inner workings. The protagonists are often filled with their thoughts or story details.

Studio readers sometimes skip long descriptions and just read dialogue! so make it good.

Steer clear of adverbs as much as you can.

ENDINGS

THERE ARE 4 POSSIBLE ENDINGS

THE 4TH IS A REPEATING OF A JOKE, THAT SOMEHOW GOT A LAUGH SOMEWHERE IN THE SCREENPLAY. (A CALLBACK) ALSO A MONOLOGUE – A CHARCTERS COMMENTS IN THE END WITH LANDSCAPE IN THE BACKGROUND.

THE 3RD IS A NOTION THAT WE LEARN SOMETHING IS GOING TO HAPPEN AGAIN ( A SEQUEL)

THE 2ND IS TYING EVERYTHING TOGETHER AND MAKING THE WHOLE MOVIE  MAKE SENSE.(MAKE SENSE) SYMBOLS CAN DO THIS  AN IMAGE FOR THE WHOLE PROCESS OF EVENTS.

THE 1ST BEST WAY TO END A MOVIE IS BY KNOWING THE CHARACTER, SOMEONE WHO WE CARE FOR, WHO WANTS AND NEEDS SOMETHING, SOMEHOW GETS IT IN A UNANTICIPATED WAY. (CHARACTER FUFILLMENT)

Example of a Shotlist

 

scene # shots in scene  CHARACTERS IN SCENE
1 ?
2 1 SCOTT
3 3 ACTOR, ACTRESS
4 1
5 6 or 7 ANNA, 8 DIFFERENT WOMEN, RECEPTIONIST- FAINT VOICE
6 3 ANNA, OLD COUPLE IN 50’S
7 1 ANNA
8 1 PHIL, JANET
9 13 CAMERAPERSON,ACTRESS,DIRECTOR, PA,SPECTATOR,
10 1 SCOTT
11 1 SEVERAL ACTOR’S AND ACTRESSES ON STAGE REHEARSING
12 2 SAM
13 1 SEVERAL ACTOR’S AND ACTRESSES IN SEATS, SEVERAL ACTOR’S AND ACTRESSES IN THEATRE SEATS,
14 9 BILLY AND STEVE, SEVERAL ACTOR’S AND ACTRESSES IN SEATS, ACTING TEACHER
15 5 DIRECTOR,JOEY, SEVERAL ACTOR’S AND ACTRESSES- THE CAST
16 1 CAMERAMAN
16B 4 2 WRITERS
17 1 2 VIDEO EDITORS/PEOPLE IN DIRECTOR’S AUDIO VIDEO ROOM
18 1 TWO PA’S TALKING ON HEADPHONES
18B 2 CASTING AGENT
19 1 2 LOCATION SCOUTS/ PEOPLE AT GRAVEYARD
20 1 SCOTT
21 11 ANNA, DIRECTOR,MAKEUP ARTIST, ACTRESS, 4 PA’S,WRITER
22 21 ACTORS’S 1,2,3,5,6,8, ACTRESSES’S 1-8, ASIAN ACTRESS, OBESE ACTRESS, ETHNIC LOOKING ACTOR 4, SKINNY ACTOR 7,
23 5 EVERYBODY, COPS & CAR
24 1
88 TOTAL SHOTS

An Analysis of Plot in a Story

 

PLOT : AN ANALYSIS

PLOT IS A SKELETON WE SAY, ALL OF THE DETAILS OF THE STORY HANG ON THE BONES OF THE PLOT. REALIZE THIS IS WRONG. PLOT IS A PROCESS, AND NOT AN OBJECT TO BE REFERRED TO IN METAPHOR FORM: 

Plot is dynamic, somewhat of a riddle, it is compromised of mystery. This genre of mystery is the most popular form of literature, so plot has much to say for itself.

Two clues we need to solve a riddle are the (what?) and the (why?).and we combine them.  For example : The story of the Choking Doberman the (what feeling) is the dog choking on something and the (why feeling) the vet asks the woman to get out of the house. when combined they make mystery in writing.

A riddle is a game between the writer and the audience, the writer gives clues to make the riddle challenging(the what feeling) and then, the audience has to solve.(the why feeling)

Plot is a force that connects words, sentences, paragraphs and organizes them into a certain sense of character, action and location.

In the beginning, you should have a destination plot of where you are going ;however  because writing is full of twists and turns, you can’t just develop plot all the way before you write. You can use plot on paragraphs after you write them and then put them together.

After you use defined a few paragraphs with the use of plot, you may be able to establish a pattern. When you establish a pattern of character,with plot then you will have a dynamic force leading to the characters intent and motivation.

Plot patterns are so basic to human behavior, that they havent changed in 5 thousand years. Behavior is just the first step towards plot.

Back way in the day, a story was just a sequence of events and how they happened, plot then grew into a a reformed story with a pattern of action and reaction. the who, what, and why always make up plot.

Making one action the result of another (cause and effect)  is also another example of plot’s who, what and why.

“The reader shouldn’t say why plot will fill that void. That is the full responsibility of the writer.”

“People prefer order to disorder in fiction.”

“Life is not plot, stories are. Stories are a unified action that creates a whole made up of a beginning, middle and end.”

The Story Format

–Initial Action — Intent — Rising Action — Reversal — Recogntion — Climax — Falling Action — Denounment —

Beginnning –

Initial Action – Problem that must be solved. EX : “Two English Gentleman” Clive gets all the mail and Geoffrey does not.

Intent – What does my character want then? (happiness or misery?) Start Plot then after describe what charccter wants. Ex: Geoffrey wants mail, wants to be happy and fufilled. After Intent is established …

Middle –

Rising Action – Character pursues goal. Ex:  Geoffrey wants to buy the letter from Clive.

Reversal – Character runs into problems succeding. Ex: Clive attempts to get the letter back and Geoffrey refuses.

Recogntion – Relations between characters change as a result of the reverse. Reversal is the event and Recogntion is the irreversable emotion change between the characters brought about by the event. Ex the two fight over the letter.

End –

Falling Action – A series of statements or ideas in an ascending order of force or intensity,especially the conclusion of a crisis and the turning point of the plot and dramatic action.

Denounment – a final part of a story or drama in which everything is made clear,exposed and no questions or surprises remain. It is the logical outcome to the story and it makes sense.

”Plot holds everything together, so first learn all of the plot rules, then try to break them.”

IF THERE IS NO TENSION THERE IS NO PLOT

Tension is the first lowest plot factor – when an intention is denied the effect is this.

The second lowest plot factor is creating tension through opposition, a simple disagreement is local tension and the screenplay, novel is made up of these.

However a long lasting tension is VASTLY more integral to the main plot; this creates tension inside of the local (small tension). These feelings can figure out the main conflict.

 The third lowest plot factor is making the tension grow and grow as you reach one climax, If it is the first climax in a few or the main climax.

THE TENSION GROWS AS THE CHARACTER GOES THROUGH HURDLES/CHALLENGES AND BECOMES STRONGER OR MAYBE WEAKER. THE SERIOUS CONFLICTS ( FORWARD TENSIONS) ARE ONES THAT DEAL AND  AFFECT CHARCTER IN A MAJOR WAY.

The writers job is to tell these challenges very compelling and interesting.

Example :

SETUP : Man meets Woman

INTENT/RISING ACTION : Man asks Woman to marry him

REVERSAL : WOMAN SAYS NO (LOCAL TENSION, CHALLENGES, AND PLOT) (BUILD ON THIS WITH MANY REVERSALS)

RECOGNITION -SHE REALLY MEANS IT, IF HE DOESN’T DO THIS OR THAT TO MAKE IT BETTER (FORWARD TENSION,CONFLICT)

CLIMAX – Major tension, conflict is resolved in a rush of all tensions together, readers and writers have been thrusted towards intense- incredible climax, ALL HELL breaks loose

Fatal attraction is a good example of tensions : Michael Douglas keeps on pushing away a woman(local tension) but, her acts get more and more hostlie and desperate (until release of a forward tension, her killing and kidnapping his kids.This creates the major conflict by example of a few local tensions and how  the stakes grow larger) In climax ( she breaks into his house and tries to kill his wife.)

THE deepest tension, however comes from impossible situations where there is no answer, no winner or loser no yes or no.

The 4th lowest plot factor – make CHANGE OF A CHARCTER the point of the story. Events change to force a CHANGE IN A PERSONALITY OF A CHARACTER. Fatal Attraction could have showed from beginning to end how events affect a family and how they are now. What will happen to the charcter’s treating of his family when he or she changes? It is like a second plot inside of major plot.

When you write, use the best part of your mind – just let yourself go.

Don’t use structure right away ,wait for a full page or five before you use structure and plot after writing or if you get stuck. So you should write first, then save all  the important things to keep up with the plot you have created.

Reviewing after, just make sure all you have can always advance the story or erase it and put it on ignore.

When you save something for plot, you can choose to explain it then and there or you can let it go off later. Think of it like a game that you can play to let certain things go first when you decide to use plot.and structure

.From there you can really have fun, if you let something go off later like in the third act or 30th page when you first explained it vaguely in the 5th page. It is called “casually letting something go off into detail” 

This way a reader almost doesn’t notice, but they should vaguely remember it in the 5th page however.

In Shirley Jackson’s story of the Lottery, this catches us off guard because we think the lottery is “good” but in truth of the story it is very bad and we were fooled.

The writing world you(I) create is different from your own personal life. being creative  is free writing. At the end of the scene it has to be organized and structured and be close to plot to push and carry the story along.  Don’t dilute the dramatic effect by digressing.   

But you can put very small things after using plot and structure that don’t have to carry the story along by :

“casually letting something go.”

Examples of movies that let you know something and surprise you at the end? SAW, THE ISLAND——————-

It appears that some characters and conversations or items are important in the beginning, but the reader or watcher will read or see just how important it is later.

An item could be (the almanac for back to the future) 

A mention of a character could be (a mighty hero)

A conversation could be ( about a financial situation)

*We expect things to happen out of the blue in real life but we won’t tolerate it in fiction :

1) The world we create has to have rules.

2) The reason something happens but be evident in fiction, Readers won’t tolerate the unknown. Readers won’t like a wacky solution to a problem either.

“Plot asks a question and the climax must answer it”

Keep the character in the action all the time, the circumstance of the action must be solved by the character and not the character be solved by the circumstance of action. We (the readers and watchers) we be happy that happy and not sad then.

METHODS OF WRITING

1)Some writers have a method of writing where they would be meticulous and organized and structured, who would lay down all their work on index cards before writing a single word.

2)Some writers would begin at the end and know the ending before writing

3)Some writers would begin at start to write to the end.

“You will create your own pattern of plot and find out what works.”

TWO KINDS OF PLOTS

Plots of the body (violence, force)

Plot’s of the mind (fraud)

We’ve liked mind over force always.

Foundation of comedy is fraud – (double meanings, confusion)

“Is your story an action story or does it deal more with the inner workings of character and human nature?”

Action stories –have sheer physical action and violence and force.

Character stories – have sheer mental attributes that can constitue fraud of the mind to fool the reader and watcher.

In action movies – characters are reduced to a small amount of charcter just advance the story. The Main character doesn’t change as much which is convenient for a sequel.

DEEP STRUCTURE OF THE STORY

The moral system is included in central concept or idea to it’s finish mostly but for some shows it is portrayed that it is good to steal or commit crime and in the end of the story ( Oceans Eleven, Catch Me if You Can) It is portrayed very intelligently that really did good and they didn’t. They fool the audience in this respect. You can go either way but it has to end moral to be good and the audience would like it.

 In the Film Shane, He has strong behavior and he doesn’t waiver a second, all the way to the end. We recognize this proper behavior and like it in a storycontrary to normal life when we could only have our OWN ways individually how things should be.

The key to Deep Structure is the Argument – Dealing with complications in the world, we simplify them into arguments and we deal by making most things- DUALISTIC AND SOLVING THEM LIKE A STORY WOULD FOR AS WELL.

There are always two arguments to an argument : one for each side of the issue.

Examples of dualistic ideas are ugly/beautiful, light/dark, rich/poor. Good vs Bad is the easiest cliché. One charcter is kind hearted, brave, sincere, and on a mission and the other character is dark hearted,cowardly, insincere and wants to stop good from accomplishing.

Duality between opposing forces is a given, Each character must have a good and bad side.

A GOOD STORY WILL EXPLAIN BOTH GOOD AND BAD SIDES OF THE PERSON, QUESTION THEM AND ANSWER THEM”

The most controversial ideas today are GOOD VS GOOD, divorce, revenge, and temptation. these can be used for a real look of catching attention. other good arguments are when the solution is neither wrong or right and there is no simple solution. EX : do you break the law for the greater good?

There are always two arguments to an argument : one for each side of the issue. The authors job is to not take sides, but be neutral and also symphathetic from both sides. You can capture both sides in the middle of the conflict and make that compelling!. That would be the moral thing the audience would want .The reader or watcher would then fall for the circumstance and try to see how the character solves his/her problem of the circumstance.

Develop an argument that is not solved yet and split it into two sides,and make the characters compelling in solving the circumstance against all other forces.

We know who is supposed to win and it is the writers job to turn that over on the reader. But the writer may just dazzle us with action, but strip the action and there is nothing left.

Deep tension comes from impossible situations where there is no answer, no winner or loser no yes or no. however most movies have a duality that is common.

Think you are a god on paper, and that your mind has unlimited opportunities for you to set straight.

A story must have a force and an opposing force period.

Soapbox shit is not true fiction.

If you get your characters in development to say what you want them to say , you are not making a real character.If you want the world to hear what you have to say, go write an essay or article.You must make the character say what they want to say.

THE STORY AND IT’S CHARACTER DYNAMICS

Some elements of character are the most important to plot when a character “does that?” He becomes that character and then that starts plot.

CHARACTER DYNAMICS

A) ALFRED meets B) BEATRICE, B) BEATRICE tells him to get lost

add another character – C)CHUCK B)BEATRICE LOVES C)CHUCK

The charcter dynamic is six By adding 3 relationships to each A, B, C.

A’s Relationship to B,

B’s TO A

B’s TO C

C’s TO B

A’s TO C

C’s TO A

Add a 4th charcter D) Dana. Dana loves Alfred.

Now the charcter dynamics is MORE.

ALFRED’S Relationship to BEATRICE,

BEATRICE’S “”TO ALFRED

BEATRICE’S“” TO CHUCK

CHUCK’S TO BEATRICE

ALFRED’S TO CHUCK

CHUCK’S TO ALFRED

DANA’S TO ALFRED

ALFRED’S TO DANA

BEATRICE’S TO DANA

DANA’S TO BEATRICE

CHUCK’S TO DANA’

DANA’S TO CHUCK

Too many charcters may cause you to forget one or two no matter what.

The dynamics of these charcters is popular but different scenarios happen to groups of two or three .

Usually two people have adventures and the other two have adventures and the ideas are combined. a lot of the times three charcters are involved but split up until combined.

3’s are popular because uaually a charcter tries three times and get’s the same result.and also three times makes for good tensions, but four can get boring. Three is a powerful number, humor, poetry , music and stanzas.

Usually three charcter’s with a dynamic of six is just right.

 In Ghost, an example of character dynamic is (A) Demi Moore relates to (B)Goldberg indirectly ( through Goldberg to her dead boyfriend (C)Swayze

(C)Swayze relates directly to (B)Goldberg and indirectly through (B)Goldberg to his living girlfriend (A) Demi 

(B) Goldberg relates directly to both(C) Swayze and (A)Demi Moore

The character makes one choice and there is a logical connection, the reader will have a motivation to find that out. Don’t be too predicable in the solution, because then it will be boring. The charcater’s behavior should surprise us. ( why did she do that?) the behavior should’nt however surprise us at the end because there is a morality that we should be very familiar with.

An Analysis of Plot in a Story

An Analysis of Plot in a Story

PLOT : AN ANALYSIS

 

 

PLOT IS A SKELETON WE SAY, ALL OF THE DETAILS OF THE STORY HANG ON THE BONES OF THE PLOT. REALIZE THIS IS WRONG. PLOT IS A PROCESS, AND NOT AN OBJECT TO BE REFERRED TO IN METAPHOR FORM: 

 

 Plot is dynamic, somewhat of a riddle, it is compromised of mystery. This genre of mystery is the most popular form of literature, so plot has much to say for itself.

 

Two clues we need to solve a riddle are the (what?) and the (why?).and we combine them.  For example : The story of the Choking Doberman the (what feeling) is the dog choking on something and the (why feeling) the vet asks the woman to get out of the house. when combined they make mystery in writing.

 

A riddle is a game between the writer and the audience, the writer gives clues to make the riddle challenging(the what feeling) and then, the audience has to solve.(the why feeling)

 

Plot is a force that connects words, sentences, paragraphs and organizes them into a certain sense of character, action and location.

 

In the beginning, you should have a destination plot of where you are going ;however  because writing is full of twists and turns, you can’t just develop plot all the way before you write. You can use plot on paragraphs after you write them and then put them together.

 

After you use defined a few paragraphs with the use of plot, you may be able to establish a pattern. When you establish a pattern of character,with plot then you will have a dynamic force leading to the characters intent and motivation.

 

Plot patterns are so basic to human behavior, that they havent changed in 5 thousand years. Behavior is just the first step towards plot.

 

Back way in the day, a story was just a sequence of events and how they happened, plot then grew into a a reformed story with a pattern of action and reaction. the who, what, and why always make up plot.

 

 

 

Making one action the result of another (cause and effect)  is also another example of plot’s who, what and why.

 

“The reader shouldn’t say why plot will fill that void. That is the full responsibility of the writer.”

 

“People prefer order to disorder in fiction.”

 

“Life is not plot, stories are. Stories are a unified action that creates a whole made up of a beginning, middle and end.”

 

The Story Format

 

–Initial Action — Intent — Rising Action — Reversal — Recogntion — Climax — Falling Action — Denounment — 

 

Beginnning – 

Initial Action – Problem that must be solved. EX : “Two English Gentleman” Clive gets all the mail and Geoffrey does not. 

Intent – What does my character want then? (happiness or misery?) Start Plot then after describe what charccter wants. Ex: Geoffrey wants mail, wants to be happy and fufilled. After Intent is established …

 

Middle –

Rising Action – Character pursues goal. Ex:  Geoffrey wants to buy the letter from Clive. 

Reversal – Character runs into problems succeding. Ex: Clive attempts to get the letter back and Geoffrey refuses.

Recogntion – Relations between characters change as a result of the reverse. Reversal is the event and Recogntion is the irreversable emotion change between the characters brought about by the event. Ex the two fight over the letter.

 

End –

Falling Action – A series of statements or ideas in an ascending order of force or intensity,especially the conclusion of a crisis and the turning point of the plot and dramatic action.

Denounment – a final part of a story or drama in which everything is made clear,exposed and no questions or surprises remain. It is the logical outcome to the story and it makes sense.

 

”Plot holds everything together, so first learn all of the plot rules, then try to break them.”

 

 

 

 

 

IF THERE IS NO TENSION THERE IS NO PLOT

 

 

 

 

Tension is the first lowest plot factor – when an intention is denied the effect is this.

The second lowest plot factor is creating tension through opposition, a simple disagreement is local tension and the screenplay, novel is made up of these.

 

 However a long lasting tension is VASTLY more integral to the main plot; this creates tension inside of the local (small tension). These feelings can figure out the main conflict.

 

 The third lowest plot factor is making the tension grow and grow as you reach one climax, If it is the first climax in a few or the main climax. 

 

THE TENSION GROWS AS THE CHARACTER GOES THROUGH HURDLES/CHALLENGES AND BECOMES STRONGER OR MAYBE WEAKER. THE SERIOUS CONFLICTS ( FORWARD TENSIONS) ARE ONES THAT DEAL AND  AFFECT CHARCTER IN A MAJOR WAY.

 

The writers job is to tell these challenges very compelling and interesting.

 

Example : 

SETUP : Man meets Woman 

 

INTENT/RISING ACTION : Man asks Woman to marry him  

 

REVERSAL : WOMAN SAYS NO (LOCAL TENSION, CHALLENGES, AND PLOT) (BUILD ON THIS WITH MANY REVERSALS)

RECOGNITION -SHE REALLY MEANS IT, IF HE DOESN’T DO THIS OR THAT TO MAKE IT BETTER (FORWARD TENSION,CONFLICT)

 

CLIMAX – Major tension, conflict is resolved in a rush of all tensions together, readers and writers have been thrusted towards intense- incredible climax, ALL HELL breaks loose

 

 

 

 

 

Fatal attraction is a good example of tensions : Michael Douglas keeps on pushing away a woman(local tension) but, her acts get more and more hostlie and desperate (until release of a forward tension, her killing and kidnapping his kids.This creates the major conflict by example of a few local tensions and how  the stakes grow larger) In climax ( she breaks into his house and tries to kill his wife.)

 

THE deepest tension, however comes from impossible situations where there is no answer, no winner or loser no yes or no.

 

 

The 4th lowest plot factor – make CHANGE OF A CHARCTER the point of the story. Events change to force a CHANGE IN A PERSONALITY OF A CHARACTER. Fatal Attraction could have showed from beginning to end how events affect a family and how they are now. What will happen to the charcter’s treating of his family when he or she changes? It is like a second plot inside of major plot.

 

 When you write, use the best part of your mind – just let yourself go.

Don’t use structure right away ,wait for a full page or five before you use structure and plot after writing or if you get stuck. So you should write first, then save all  the important things to keep up with the plot you have created.

 

Reviewing after, just make sure all you have can always advance the story or erase it and put it on ignore.

 

When you save something for plot, you can choose to explain it then and there or you can let it go off later. Think of it like a game that you can play to let certain things go first when you decide to use plot.and structure

 

.From there you can really have fun, if you let something go off later like in the third act or 30th page when you first explained it vaguely in the 5th page. It is called “casually letting something go off into detail” 

 

This way a reader almost doesn’t notice, but they should vaguely remember it in the 5th page however.

 

In Shirley Jackson’s story of the Lottery, this catches us off guard because we think the lottery is “good” but in truth of the story it is very bad and we were fooled.

 

The writing world you(I) create is different from your own personal life. being creative  is free writing. At the end of the scene it has to be organized and structured and be close to plot to push and carry the story along.  Don’t dilute the dramatic effect by digressing.   

 

But you can put very small things after using plot and structure that don’t have to carry the story along by : 

 

“casually letting something go.”

 

 Examples of movies that let you know something and surprise you at the end? SAW, THE ISLAND——————-

 

It appears that some characters and conversations or items are important in the beginning, but the reader or watcher will read or see just how important it is later. 

 

An item could be (the almanac for back to the future) 

A mention of a character could be (a mighty hero)

A conversation could be ( about a financial situation)

 

*We expect things to happen out of the blue in real life but we won’t tolerate it in fiction :

1) The world we create has to have rules.

2) The reason something happens but be evident in fiction, Readers won’t tolerate the unknown. Readers won’t like a wacky solution to a problem either.

 

“Plot asks a question and the climax must answer it”

 

Keep the character in the action all the time, the circumstance of the action must be solved by the character and not the character be solved by the circumstance of action. We (the readers and watchers) we be happy that happy and not sad then.

 

METHODS OF WRITING

 

1)Some writers have a method of writing where they would be meticulous and organized and structured, who would lay down all their work on index cards before writing a single word.

 

2)Some writers would begin at the end and know the ending before writing 

 

3)Some writers would begin at start to write to the end.

 

“You will create your own pattern of plot and find out what works.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TWO KINDS OF PLOTS

 

Plots of the body (violence, force)

Plot’s of the mind (fraud)

We’ve liked mind over force always.

Foundation of comedy is fraud – (double meanings, confusion)

 

“Is your story an action story or does it deal more with the inner workings of character and human nature?”

 

Action stories –have sheer physical action and violence and force.

Character stories – have sheer mental attributes that can constitue fraud of the mind to fool the reader and watcher.

 

In action movies – characters are reduced to a small amount of charcter just advance the story. The Main character doesn’t change as much which is convenient for a sequel.

 

DEEP STRUCTURE OF THE STORY

 

The moral system is included in central concept or idea to it’s finish mostly but for some shows it is portrayed that it is good to steal or commit crime and in the end of the story ( Oceans Eleven, Catch Me if You Can) It is portrayed very intelligently that really did good and they didn’t. They fool the audience in this respect. You can go either way but it has to end moral to be good and the audience would like it. 

 

 In the Film Shane, He has strong behavior and he doesn’t waiver a second, all the way to the end. We recognize this proper behavior and like it in a storycontrary to normal life when we could only have our OWN ways individually how things should be.

 

The key to Deep Structure is the Argument – Dealing with complications in the world, we simplify them into arguments and we deal by making most things- DUALISTIC AND SOLVING THEM LIKE A STORY WOULD FOR AS WELL.

There are always two arguments to an argument : one for each side of the issue.

 

 

 

 

Examples of dualistic ideas are ugly/beautiful, light/dark, rich/poor. Good vs Bad is the easiest cliché. One charcter is kind hearted, brave, sincere, and on a mission and the other character is dark hearted,cowardly, insincere and wants to stop good from accomplishing.  

 

Duality between opposing forces is a given, Each character must have a good and bad side. 

A GOOD STORY WILL EXPLAIN BOTH GOOD AND BAD SIDES OF THE PERSON, QUESTION THEM AND ANSWER THEM”

 

The most controversial ideas today are GOOD VS GOOD, divorce, revenge, and temptation. these can be used for a real look of catching attention. other good arguments are when the solution is neither wrong or right and there is no simple solution. EX : do you break the law for the greater good?

 

There are always two arguments to an argument : one for each side of the issue. The authors job is to not take sides, but be neutral and also symphathetic from both sides. You can capture both sides in the middle of the conflict and make that compelling!. That would be the moral thing the audience would want .The reader or watcher would then fall for the circumstance and try to see how the character solves his/her problem of the circumstance.

 

Develop an argument that is not solved yet and split it into two sides,and make the characters compelling in solving the circumstance against all other forces.

 

 

We know who is supposed to win and it is the writers job to turn that over on the reader. But the writer may just dazzle us with action, but strip the action and there is nothing left.

 

Deep tension comes from impossible situations where there is no answer, no winner or loser no yes or no. however most movies have a duality that is common.

 

Think you are a god on paper, and that your mind has unlimited opportunities for you to set straight.

 

A story must have a force and an opposing force period.

 

Soapbox shit is not true fiction. 

 

 

 

 

 

If you get your characters in development to say what you want them to say , you are not making a real character.If you want the world to hear what you have to say, go write an essay or article.You must make the character say what they want to say.

 

THE STORY AND IT’S CHARACTER DYNAMICS

 

Some elements of character are the most important to plot when a character “does that?” He becomes that character and then that starts plot. 

 

 

CHARACTER DYNAMICS

 

A) ALFRED meets B) BEATRICE, B) BEATRICE tells him to get lost 

add another character – C)CHUCK B)BEATRICE LOVES C)CHUCK 

 

The charcter dynamic is six By adding 3 relationships to each A, B, C.

 

A’s Relationship to B,

B’s TO A

B’s TO C

C’s TO B

A’s TO C

C’s TO A

 

Add a 4th charcter D) Dana. Dana loves Alfred.

 

Now the charcter dynamics is MORE. 

 

ALFRED’S Relationship to BEATRICE,

BEATRICE’S “”TO ALFRED

BEATRICE’S“” TO CHUCK

CHUCK’S TO BEATRICE

ALFRED’S TO CHUCK

CHUCK’S TO ALFRED

DANA’S TO ALFRED

ALFRED’S TO DANA

BEATRICE’S TO DANA

DANA’S TO BEATRICE

CHUCK’S TO DANA’

DANA’S TO CHUCK

 

 

Too many charcters may cause you to forget one or two no matter what.

 

 

 

The dynamics of these charcters is popular but different scenarios happen to groups of two or three .

 

Usually two people have adventures and the other two have adventures and the ideas are combined. a lot of the times three charcters are involved but split up until combined.

 

3’s are popular because uaually a charcter tries three times and get’s the same result.and also three times makes for good tensions, but four can get boring. Three is a powerful number, humor, poetry , music and stanzas.

 

Usually three charcter’s with a dynamic of six is just right.

 

 In Ghost, an example of character dynamic is (A) Demi Moore relates to (B)Goldberg indirectly ( through Goldberg to her dead boyfriend (C)Swayze

(C)Swayze relates directly to (B)Goldberg and indirectly through (B)Goldberg to his living girlfriend (A) Demi 

(B) Goldberg relates directly to both(C) Swayze and (A)Demi Moore

 

The character makes one choice and there is a logical connection, the reader will have a motivation to find that out. Don’t be too predicable in the solution, because then it will be boring. The charcater’s behavior should surprise us. ( why did she do that?) the behavior should’nt however surprise us at the end because there is a morality that we should be very familiar with. 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Production for Beginners

               When planning a production of a commercial, documentary, movie or TV show a process is involved to bring the finished product to market.  The processes involved are Pre-Production, Production and Post-Production.  In all three-production steps, similar aspects of lighting, sound effects, cinematography, logistics, budgeting, staffing, scheduling, investment, and engineering are required.  In all three-production steps, certain above the line (creative production personnel) and below the line (technical production personnel) work incessantly towards a goal of a production step.  Ultimately, they work towards the finished product.  A wide degree of creativity is required for the production personnel as well as the technical engineering personnel. Collaboration is as important to production as the senses are to human beings.

The Executive Producer is the CEO of all operations involving a video/film shoot.  He is in charge of all programs, program series, or movies.  He coordinates with the investor, client, station, corporate management, advertising, talent, budget and all agents of talent and writers.  He hires and fires everyone that has to do with multiple productions although he leaves responsibility to a single producer in a single production. In a single production, the producer is CEO.  The producer is responsible for all floor personnel and all actions they do.  He sometimes doubles as writer and director or hires them.  The writer is responsible for the groundwork of writing which is the basis of every single decision the production team will make.  Without a complete script, you can’t cast the program, design its look, determine the crew and equipment needed, list the locations of sets or budget or schedule the production.  The producer and writer carefully towards perfection, scrutinize the script for every major and minor detail for the director to direct the script into effective communicative video/film.  The director is in charge of directing the talent as the script moves along and transforms the script decisively into video and audio messages.  The director is hired by the producer to also direct all technical operations during the shoot.  The talent, technical supervisor, art director, photography director, lighting director, stage manager and floor manager also work for and with the director.  All the other production personnel and technical personnel including the cameraperson usually work under the above listed billets to perfect the production.  Large productions may also have a composer and choreographer.  In smaller productions, a few personnel on the floor may carry on many different jobs by multitasking them . Pre-Production’s are all planning and nothing but every detail of the production period.  The Production period is all the characters and/or messages in the script into video/film.  The Post-Production period is all about directing the audio and video cutting to completion of final product.

The Pre-Production is as said before, more paramount than anything in the entire production process. This process involves the planning of scripts and storyboarding, special audio effects, lighting, people, places, and feedback, investment and scheduling these jobs with an open mind and with attention to detail.

A treatment is the start of the script planning. A script is then revised many times by a writer at the producer’s discretion. Scripting is followed by storyboarding. Storyboarding is compiled by the writers and directors and they draw up audio and video shots for the scenes that are complex. The property manager and all personnel are then ready to plan and create sound and special effects for either in real time or computer related within budget  While sound and special effects are being created, the lighting is being planned as well as the locations to shoot the production are being planned.  The personnel involved in casting are planning and the producer is budgeting all of these expenses to do so. Then all plans are verified carefully to fix major and minor problems that may arise. The most common problems are power problems, contact problems, additional sound and lighting, cameras and how many, location issues and time, communication and safety issues as well as one of the most important, legal and government code issues.  Additional problems might develop at the last minute so be prepared.

The all-powerful schedule comes next.  Creating a timeline for the overall project, from development to completion is what has to happen.  Scheduling and budgeting go hand in hand here ,so you may want to schedule all scenes at a particular location together.  Shooting in sequence is a luxury few productions can afford.  The director of photography can give you a list of all scenes and how long they might take to complete after planning.  With extremely good scheduling, it is off to production and Take 1!

At production the producer has to lay off and let the director do all the work.  Although the producer may double as the director in certain instances the director’s position is to move the talent into certain visions and emotions the audience will realize and stay tuned in.  He must also follow the script and production plans organized in Pre-Production.  In single camera production, if you don’t stick to plan regardless of retentiveness, the cast and time of day could be fine but small disasters may originate..  For example, if you indeed shoot one scene when you are supposed to shoot another one, something as silly as a white t-shirt could be a problem.  If you were supposed to shoot scenes 2, 3, 6 in order and you shot 2, 6, 3 here is the paradox.  Scene two was supposed to have a dirty t-shirt, but scene six is supposed to have a clean t-shirt, so you rush to the cleaners after scene two to get scene six ready.  When you shoot scene six and go onto scene three you find out that scene three has to look exactly like that dirty t-shirt in scene two. What are you to do, is there a way to get the shirt dirty the same exact way for scene three?  If you don’t stick to plan, small things pop up that could ruin everything.

If the script is the basis for the planning and shooting plan, then continuity personnel or yourself must guard that script to a tee and catch every problem and keep you informed. Also know that no shoot is ever completed exactly as planned, so have plan B ready just in case. You should know where the locations, costumes and props are in every production. You should also have ideas on how to adjust plan A as well, because something like a dirty t-shirt can cause major problems.

Before shooting always apply the color bars to the camera as well as white balance.  Applying color bars aligns the camera and videotape recording systems.  The white balance provides accurate color temperatures for the color information that makes up the video. This is done by zooming in on a white board for about one to two minutes before production.

When you are shooting try not to over excess panning – which means moving the camera from right to left or zooming in and out too much because you create too much motion.  It will definitely make the scene be a retake.  Panning for any other reason than to include everybody in the shot is a bad idea.  Zooming in and out while shooting much makes the quality poor and gives people a headache.  It is a great idea to change angles frequently to include lots of shots of various objects and persons to diversify your directorial message in scene.

Lastly, review your footage when you are done before you wrap up any location.  You may need to retake bad shots before you leave that day of work.  If you’re done it is off to the edit room for Post-Production.

Today’s computer editors are capable of almost every effect you can dream up.  Various well-known editors movie or video writers are Adobe Premiere and Pinnacle Studio for Windows operating systems, and Final Cut Pro for Macintosh/Apple systems.  While most software have their pros and cons it is important for the producer/editor to fully optimize all performance as budget allows so the production can roll smoothly.

Editing production is yet another precise process.  Directors will generally give the producer and editor several takes of each scene. The most common objectives in editing are to cut when action happens, cut when natural, normal and mundane sequences end and to cut to view object pictures or clues. These three are important because you can keep the audience’s concentration on the main idea.  For example, this means that the audience won’t likely want to walk to the refrigerator or flip the channel because of interruptions or boredom.  Two major terms known in editing are cutting and frames.  A cut is an instantaneous change from one shot to another.  A full frame is a complete picture or video message appearing at thirty times per second.  At this rate the images blend together to create the illusion of motion.  As an editor you must often and frequently cut from one frame to another as someone exits the frame from the right and comes in from the left.  This is the way the illusion of motion works, the picture frame moves from left to right.

Common issues with editing are the infusement of audio at the last minutes of editing.  How do they do it?  This is a common action by transitioning music and video to play together after the production has taken place with your editing software. Also, most production teams make videos too long and don’t recognize that the longevity of the video/film makes it “slow moving” that connotes boredom. Boredom is a major “no” when producing the film/video. All three ideas for editing and cutting discussed before could be used. The production team needs to understand that scenes should be only as long as a group can keep interest.  You can visually do this with a group of individuals to see when a scene is redundant and go with the popular opinion to fix that problem.

The most integral idea in editing video is the basis of the word “edit.”  If you have doubts about a certain picture that has no bearing in the overall message, it should not be in the shoot and should be cut away from the video/film.  If you can understand this, remember that in the first few seconds of the film/video, the idea has to be exciting to entice the audience and make the video/film a major hit.

If the video/film is just a message, make the message clear to the masses by planning.  If you can plan the shoot, you can shoot the plan and edit the shoot creatively and lucratively.

Screenwriters Legal Guide

 

  1. Read a writers contract.
  2.  A writer is not supposed to work for different people at once.
  3. Commisioned work is work “made for hire” meaning if you write it, it belongs to the person hiring you.
  4. A director may choose to go back to a writer because the director has burned out
    1. Two kinds of contacts : either Employment “made for hire” OR Literary Acquisition/Option Agreement
    2. “Coverage” in Hollywood terms is a short summary of either box , pass,/read,/consider.
    3.  An option price is very low 10-25k, an option price is just an amount when pre-production starts, purchase price is near the end of production. independent producing will net you a option ,much less 2.5 – 5k, guard yourself against option price when it comes to independent and try to make it higher.
    4. Guard yourself against “ setup bonus” which they will get anyway, ask for 10,000 or something legitamit when studio is set up otherwise you won’t get anything and they will
    5. The first option payment to you is subtracted from the purchase price, after that, the price is not applicable towards further options.
    6.  Keep in mind, the longer the producer wants to hold on to this material, the better for him, so increase your option payment to compensate after a yr.
    7. A setup bonus for you is also not applicable to your purchase price, a setup bonus can also extend two more times before it will be bought or will not be.
    8.  Some producers will want to try to get a free option, not neccesarily the best alternative for you.
    9.  Make sure you, when you get a deal, write down that the prod company will not shop material to any other  parties, so that the producer doesn’t waste your time in the end. But don’t burn bridges.
    10. 14.            The rights of a copyrighted work are  Reproduction the right to make copies..  Adaption – prepare new or derivative work on their own work.  Public distributionthe sold or rented rights. Public Performance – right to have their work performed. Public Display.- the right that refers to writing that can be explained in photographs.
  1.  A big part of the negotiation involves rights you will hold on to ( reserved rights) and rights you sell (granted rights) Prod companies and studios like to have all, although novelization rights can be secured.
  2. Some writers are able to secure publishing rights of the screenplay if only that one person worked on it. Some writers may be able to secure merchandisng rights, but this is very difficult.  All your rights are worth money so be careful.
  3.  A reversion is when they prodco or studio pay for your script and they can never get it off the ground. you may be able to get the script back.
  4.  THE PURCHASE CONTRACT MUST ALLOW A CLEAR TRANSFER OF RIGHTS. A FULL EXCERSISE OF TRANSFER TO COMPABNY FROM YOU IS WHEN YOU RECEIVE FUNDS FIRST. BE WRAY OF THE 5 MORE DAYS CLUSE IN THE CONTRACT. DON’T DO THIS 5 DYA THING EVER WITH AN INDEPENDENT CO.
  5.  Indemnification – is when the writer, producert said he wrote all of the script himself and they find out otherwise there is another partner. This is a breach of contract and owes a lot of monwey to the studio.

Jump Start Your Creativity: Philosophy 101 for Filmmakers

In formidable history, there has been many aestheticians and intellectual philosophers. For many, they have derived much knowledge interpersonally and individually using their sought after thought. When the question is raised who is the most renowned and illustrious philosophers, many come to name but few bear the real wisdom. (first)Descartes, Karl Marx, Siren Kiekergaard, Jean Paul Satre, Carol Gilligan, Mary Daly, Susan Bordo, and Allison Jagger are of most interest to masses. Why are they like they are? We shall delve.

Rene Descartes is the father of modern philosophy in a nutshell. This whimsical frail man of French origin single-handedly proposed “Cogito Ergo Sum.” In English “ I think therefore I am.”  He went on to saying “ But what then am I ? “ “ A thing that thinks. “

He was the first philosopher to study the process of thinking. This proposition remarkably began the epistemological turn that signaled the end of the middle ages. He was considered the father of modern philosophy  simply because he was the first philosopher to study the process of thinking. This started modernity and the study of the individual. He entertained his proposal by saying “ Let’s start fresh, throwing away everything we think we know and build knowledge on what the truth can be distinctly known firsthand.”

Descartes discovery of a method was struck like a drum on the morning of November 10, 1619. He remained in a stove heated room the whole day alone just to reflect on his thoughts in peace. The method he thought of consists entirely in the order, disposition and inclination of the objects toward which our mental vision must be directed in order to find out any truth. In his discourse of the method, he discovered pure reason from perception to idea, from objective reality to senses, from thought to innate ideas and many other topics of interest.

The influence he had on science shocked many theologians  in his writing. Descartes wrote on dioptrics, meteteorology and geometry. Math, which was his love – he was the inventor of analytical geometry which impresionated everyone.

He played a big part on thinking for yourself as a personality in this world. Descartes said he should about philosophy, but that no single thing in this world that is not a subject to dispute. That is alone enough. To object to anything in the face of adversity. That is thinking for yourself. However I have many objections about Rene Descartes because if you can’t trust common sense and you can’t trust logic and you can’t trust thinking, you can’t trust authority, what can you trust? Or maybe its not so scary; I wonder what you’d think if you had the observations we have. Maybe, like me, you’d actually like it a whole lot that you can’t trust thinking any more than you can trust any of those other things. For me it raises the really interesting question of what else there might be that you can take as a solid starting point for continuing inquiry?

Descartes had few problems with his philosophy of sorts, the body – mind problem which he had a hard time proving. The Cartesian dualism that he created was consistent with some experiences and not consistent with other random experiences.

However all his work was placed in full integrity in our minds as a people.

Karl Marx’s ideals and personality can be construed in two ways  : anarchic or an oracle like inventor. He coined the materialism we have as a person with a Hegelian dialectical process- a process of which occurs as a result of a struggle between two opposing forces . He concluded with a philosophy from Feurerbach’s theses about how material conditions of life control reality and called it dialectical materialism.

Karl Marx rejected capitalism, saying terrorism of the marketplace makes capitalism work. The working people’s worth are none but large materials to get the job done. A large pool of workers ultimately sustains capitalism making wages low. Once again the people have no value under capitalism and have been conditioned by capitalism to value the worth  of the man upstairs rather than be in full integrity of themselves. The ignorant may work and run the world, but the wise own it. Somehow I don’t think anyone can disagree with that sentence.

Karl Marx took Hegel’s concept of the dialectical process and applied it to the five epochs of history. In order they are 1. Primitive/Communal, 2. Slave , 3. Slave 4. Capitalist, 5. Socialist/Communist. The focus of the five epochs for Karl Marx was to radically advance the movement from capitalist and socialist. He also showed how many  civilizations have gone through the five epochs of history and how one epoch or stage quickly jumps in the other. We can start from when humans were nothing but primitive, simple and grouped together(first stage). There was always an enemy with an army that took advantage of the grouping by force and rule. This is until the grouping revolts and wins and turns the enemy into the second epoch(slaves). Many peaceful years or centuries later, the ignorant simple people revolted as slaves and won over another dynasty or war to begin to own property in the third stage(feudalism.) The revolt happens again in war and now we begin the four stage or epoch (industrial capitalist age). We are currently in this state in 2004. The ignorant and oppressed always strive to do something in this game which Karl Marx so adequately described. Unfortunately, the fifth stage(socialism) is near impossible to play without some new knowledge.

Karl Marx , termed the definition of economic as a complete array of social relationships that constitute a social order. While this is completely subjective to Marx, some people think different in monopolistic competition economy we are in. Marx’s economic determinism means to regulate and control means of production, forces of production, forces of production and the relationships of production.

Karl Marx also talked about the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. He talked of the relationship between the two as the bourgeoisie creating the government as “ of, by and for the important people” instead of “ of, by and for the people.(proletariat)” Marx criticized the bourgeoisie as reducing the family relations from and to mere money relations. Karl Marx also said when the producers; the bourgeoisie produces their own grave diggers, the fall and the victory of the proletariat equally inevitable for the people.

“Class struggle is the history of all classes.” Marx relinquished. The middle class will shrink into none and harbor the thought of not being aware of their mentality as a class sooner. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel’s knew this and were determined for a change. Marx searched and found a weakness in capitalism sooner than expected. Alienation was the word and the game played by many a middle classman. It was when a person gets sick of their job, or when the worker does not place any value on the determined product. Passion and self awareness can only lead us out of capitalism. Maybe it will be myself that forms a Glattologian theory of revolution.

The rise of existentialism started with issues of major importance with highly specialized, technical and sophisticated societies. Problems like increased loss of individualism, increased pressure to conform and threat to human freedom and dignity by science and bureaucracy. Existentialism was bound to happen because the major systems of philosophy had rarely paid attention to the unique personal concerns of individuals. The loss of individuality couldn’t of come at a worse time then when Soren Kierkegaard talked about it. Soren Kierkegaard also fought against a chief problem of conforming to regular day to day standards, threats to freedom and self.

For Kiekegaard, freedom was a very different animal for him than what the majority thinks of being free. He believes freedom is more absolute and a mysterious human attribute when a person refuses to submit to group approval. He also believed that in freedom “ What you choose is less important than how you choose.” Kiekergaard chose to be very interested in what it really means to be Christian. He believed that inauthencity results when the nature and needs of the individual are ignored, denied and obscured or made less important than instititutions, abstractions or groups. Authenticity is the total opposite end of this spectrum meaning. It means creating our own comprehensive life-meanings or purposes. When an individual re-centers and re-integrates their life around their freely-chosen purposes, they become more focused, unified, and decisive. We resist social control and gain better grip on being more self-directed and more self reliant . This approach to re-structuring human life is the meaning of being authentic.

One of the major existential issues is “ What can I do? Kierkegaard pointed out as his own self project. He had his own existentialism he must solve for himself. He believed that a choice once made, rules out all other possibilities. He acknowledged that we know much but for what? He wrote a book called  Becoming a Self. In his book he talked about ‘individualism’ and irrationalism’ which Kierkegaard so often finds himself in. Jean Paul Satre wrote of self as a project as someone who divinely had the right to be anyone he wanted to be. However, Kierkegaard found himself writing about the subjective truth that counts in life. That may matter more than being someone.Kierkegaard wrote how we believe matters much more than what we believe, and that makes more sense when it a self issue.

Jean Paul Satre was alike Kierkegaard but believed in a much more raw idea of life . In his book; Nausea, he wrote about a story of  Antoine Roquentin, a french writer who is horrified at his own existence. Roquentin’s thoughts are written diary like, real feeling like book. In fact every feeling and sensation Roquentin has is spilled out in this book. The story goes on about Roquentin’s philosophical and psychological problems to capitalize on the reader . Jean Paul Satre wanted to show his Existentialist thoughts through this book . In a quote Satre wrote “a writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution.” He tried to get behind words, theories and assumptions to make the point.

The significance of many is very important when it comes to the discussion of understanding Existential philosophy, however none made the point as well as Abraham Maslow. He said of Jean Paul Satre and Soren Kierkegaard“ The significance of many is important when it came to really understanding existential philosophy. Which is wholly created by the continued and arbitrary choices of the person himself, almost as if he could make himself into anything he decided to be. Of course in so extreme a form, this is almost certainly an overstatement, which is directly contradicted by the facts of genetics and of constitutional psychology. As a matter of fact, it is just plain silly.”

Abraham found many ways to beat up other philosophers with his wit. However he has been the most moral in my mind. He said once “Growth is, in itself, a rewarding and exciting process, e.g., the fulfilling of yearnings and ambitions, like that of being a good doctor; the acquisition of admired skills, like playing the violin or being a good carpenter; the steady increase of understanding about people or about the universe, or about oneself; the development of creativeness in whatever field, or, most important, simply the ambition to be a good human being” The significance of Abraham Maslow in understanding existentialism is paramount because he is so real and moral about the word.

It is believed that the Cartesian Masculinazation of thought was indeed a eye opener to women all over the world. The patriarchy is learned to be the enemy to coming of age feminists, however it has been infallible since the beginning of time. All efforts to stop patriarchy before the 19th century were not written about or not published or found yet. There was many feminist philosophers in the 19th and 20th century. Four strike the cord as the most profound in women’s philosophy.

Carol Gilligan was born in 1936 in New York City. Gilligan began teaching at Harvard in 1967 with renowned psychologist Erik Erikson. In 1970 she became a research assistant for Lawrence Kohlberg. Kohlberg is known for his research on moral development and his stage theory of moral development, justice and rights. Gilligan’s primary focus came to be moral development in girls. Women were taught to care for other people and expect others to care for them. She helped to form a new psychology for women by listening to them and rethinking the meaning of self and selfishness. She asked four questions about women’s voices: who is speaking, in what body, telling what story, and in what cultural framework is the story presented? She published a book called The Birth of Pleasure in 2002, which delves into experiences of love being overshadowed by loss and she considers her self a relationship philosopher and she has a different way of speaking and a voice.

Mary Daly was born in 1928. She is a radical female theologian. She has created much controversy with what she wrote. She wrote the “Qualitative Leap beyond Patriarchic Religion.” In her thesis, she believed in sex role segregation and “Methodicide.” She was an excellent speaker on killing the method, the method used by every religion to create a legitimate patriarchy. Her major philosophical thought was that the women’s movement is a mode relating to the self, to each other, to men and the world. As she quoted in her  “Qualitative Leap beyond Patriarchic Religion.” At times in the past she has refused to take questions from men despite free speech and open dialog between men and women and across genders.

Susan Bordo was born in Kentucky in she is  said to have catalyzed the birth of the new interdisciplinary field of work known as “body studies.” Bordo’s best known book, Unbearable Weight, is widely cited and discussed in scholarly writing and used in courses throughout the disciplines. Named a Notable Book of 1993 by the New York Times, it was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and received a Distinguished Publication Award from the Association for Women In Psychology. Columnist Kathy Pollitt named it one of the five best books in Women’s Studies of 1993. Bordo describes her forthcoming book ; the male body : A new look at men in public and private a personal/cultural exploration of the male body from a woman’s point of view. Her new book talks about men in the early ’90s and how men have been pursuing physical perfection in record numbers; today, they make up a quarter of all cosmetic-surgery patients. She has had a lot to contribute to the mind – body philosophy.

Alison Jagger is Professor of Philosophy and Women’s Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Her book, Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing, co-edited with Susan R. Bordo (1989); attacks the Western philosophical assumption that Cartesian rationalism is the most valid approach to knowing and living. It successfully challenges the superiority of reason–a concept borne out of the belief that in Plato’s culture/nature dualism one side must dominate–first by examining the origins of this bias, then observing alternative epistemological and ontological approaches, and finally applying these to the practical endeavors of scholarship. Jagger shares that the modern western  knowledge base and reality are gender-biased.  Her like Susan Bordo upholds their conviction of gender biased philosophy.

Mostly all of philosophy is formed by values, and the power to have some new knowledge, new astuteness, original understanding of some topical ideal. The embodiment or essence of these intriguing minds of these women are paramount to women and men everywhere. In gender, justice and knowledge all philosophy must be uncovered past the veil of illusion. Female philosophers are no doubt the other half of the puzzle of the theological ideals the men have put out over the ages. If men and women are to work together- and not against each other are we to fulfill a life more plentiful than before.